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实验室规划与建设(一)

来源:未知| 发(fa)布时间:2020-04-22| 浏览数:载(zai)入中...


      现代化的食(shi)(shi)品检测实验室在(zai)专(zhuan)业上涉及到食(shi)(shi)品化学(xue)、物理(li)学(xue)、微(wei)生物学(xue)、分子生物学(xue)和食(shi)(shi)品感官品评等多个学(xue)科,在(zai)功能上又涉及到给水(shui)、排水(shui)、通风、排风、强(qiang)电、弱电、空调、消防、废(fei)气废(fei)液处(chu)理(li)、集中供气等复(fu)杂的工艺技(ji)术,同时还要(yao)考(kao)虑到环保、安全、可持续性发(fa)展等诸多因素,因此是一个复(fu)杂的系统工程。

1.合(he)理定位(wei),科学规划

      在(zai)(zai)构(gou)建(jian)专业实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)流程中(zhong),“构(gou)”的(de)(de)(de)部分(fen)至关重(zhong)要(yao)(yao),它包(bao)括了实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)和(he)(he)规(gui)(gui)(gui)划(hua)(hua),是(shi)整个(ge)(ge)(ge)实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)设(she)的(de)(de)(de)基(ji)础和(he)(he)灵魂。实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)是(shi)指:实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)在(zai)(zai)国际(ji)、国内(nei)的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(要(yao)(yao)达到(dao)一(yi)个(ge)(ge)(ge)什么样的(de)(de)(de)水准);实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)在(zai)(zai)行(xing)业(系统)内(nei)的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei);实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)在(zai)(zai)社会(hui)中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(行(xing)使政府职(zhi)能第三方(fang)检(jian)测通用实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi))实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)在(zai)(zai)所处地理区域(yu)的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)。实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)规(gui)(gui)(gui)划(hua)(hua)包(bao)括两个(ge)(ge)(ge)方(fang)面(mian):一(yi)是(shi)实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)筑规(gui)(gui)(gui)划(hua)(hua),二是(shi)实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工艺规(gui)(gui)(gui)划(hua)(hua)。实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)筑规(gui)(gui)(gui)划(hua)(hua)包(bao)括建(jian)筑外观、风格、高度、园区布局(ju)等;实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)设(she)之前(qian),调查实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)需(xu)求(qiu)的(de)(de)(de)过(guo)程实(shi)(shi)(shi)际(ji)上就是(shi)确定(ding)整个(ge)(ge)(ge)实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)3∼5年规(gui)(gui)(gui)划(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)(de)过(guo)程,因此需(xu)要(yao)(yao)进行(xing)大量前(qian)期调研工作,既要(yao)(yao)明晰自身的(de)(de)(de)需(xu)求(qiu)和(he)(he)未来的(de)(de)(de)发展方(fang)向又要(yao)(yao)广泛地考察相关单位(wei)(wei)(wei)已(yi)建(jian)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)实(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),学习其(qi)经验(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)和(he)(he)教训。

     此外,还应该从理念上充分认识到专业实验室建(jian)(jian)设是一个复(fu)杂的系统(tong)工程,是对工作环(huan)境的构建(jian)(jian)以及环(huan)境造就出的工作方式(shi),而不是仪器(qi)和家具(ju)的简单(dan)组(zu)合(he)。

 2、实验室设(she)(she)计(ji)应先于土(tu)建设(she)(she)计(ji)

       “构”应先于“建(jian)”,只有“构”清楚了,才可(ke)以开始(shi)“建(jian)”。就(jiu)是用(yong)专(zhuan)业的(de)手段(duan)(duan)将抽(chou)象构思进(jin)行(xing)具体实(shi)(shi)现的(de)过程(cheng),包括实(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)设计(ji)、安(an)装、调试、维(wei)护和(he)升级(ji)等。目前(qian),我国对(dui)实(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)的(de)建(jian)设没有相关的(de)建(jian)筑规范,因(yin)此(ci)很(hen)多(duo)实(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)在(zai)土建(jian)设计(ji)阶段(duan)(duan),没有充分考虑到(dao)实(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)对(dui)建(jian)筑的(de)特殊要(yao)求(qiu)。正(zheng)确的(de)实(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)建(jian)设流(liu)程(cheng)是首先进(jin)行(xing)实(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)的(de)工(gong)艺设计(ji),然后在(zai)满足(zu)实(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)工(gong)艺要(yao)求(qiu)的(de)前(qian)提下,进(jin)行(xing)实(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)的(de)土建(jian)设计(ji)。这(zhei)就(jiu)要(yao)求(qiu)建(jian)设单位咨询专(zhuan)业的(de)实(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)设计(ji)方,在(zai)项目的(de)土建(jian)设计(ji)阶段(duan)(duan),就(jiu)及时介入。如有可(ke)能最(zui)好带土建(jian)设计(ji)师一起(qi)参观其他(ta)单位的(de)实(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)(yan)室(shi)以加深其认识。

比较典型的土建设计问题包括:

1)未设计风(feng)井(jing),或者风(feng)井(jing)的位(wei)置、大小(xiao)、数(shu)量不能(neng)满足(zu)要求;

2)未考虑气(qi)(qi)瓶(ping)室,仅按消防(fang)用气(qi)(qi)瓶(ping)室设计;

3)未(wei)对实验室进行整体的平面规划,分区过于简单或不合(he)理;

4)未考虑(lv)仪(yi)器的使用情况;

5)未考虑特殊房间功能,如恒温恒湿室等;

6)净层高(gao)过低,影响管线布局(ju),装修(xiu)后空间低矮。

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